SAP - An ERP Overview

What is an ERP software.

Consider a large enterprise like PepsiCo, which has number of divisions under it. There is a financial department, logistics section, HR, Warehousing, Sales and distribution etc. All these need to be integrated together, for effective functioning. This is done by a specific software known as Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP.

There is n number of ERP softwares in market today, of which SAP is used in medium to large enterprises.

SAP was the brainchild of five IBM employees who in 1972, setup an view ERP enterprise in Germany. The first releases were R1 and R2 which were mainframe only applications. Each functional division within an organization is divided into modules. SAP started with financial application. Modules such as Logistics, HR were added later on.

SAP R/3 Architecture

SAP R/3 Architecture can be divided into three main divisions depending on their functionality. The classification include

1. Database Layer

This layer stores all the data that moves through the SAP architecture. The Database layer is further divided into

Database Management System (DBMS)

Database Server.

Database management System or DBMS, is a set of software programs used to store, update or delete data from the server. The user can view and organize information according to one's criteria and also enable security features to prevent unauthorized access

SAP is compatible with any database system, be it Oracle or IBM. In addition SAP has developed its own database known as HANA, if needed.

The database layer may be combined with the application layer onto a single host or both layers may exist independently. It is always better to implement the latter, as this reduces bottleneck in traffic flow.

2. Application Layer

Whenever a user sends a request from the presentation layer, the logical operation is provided by the Application Layer. In theory, only one application server is required to process requests. But in practise, there will be n number of application servers running on various systems. The load distribution between the application servers is provided by the message servers. The message servers contain data of how many application servers are currently online and the distribution of load between them.

3. Presentation layer

The Presentation Layer consists of the SAP GUI (Graphical User Interface) which acts as an interface between the user and the other two layers. User sends request from the Presentation Layer which in turn, gets processed by the Application Layer. Data is then retrieved from the Database layer and passed back to the Presentation Layer in the reverse order.

The control of a program switches from one layer to another during each operation. When the Presentation Layer is ready, the user can enter input in the screen. At that time, the Application Layer will not be accessible. Once the data gets entered, control switches over to the Application Layer. Until the Application layer completes the processing and initiates a new screen, user cannot input any data. The procedure, in which a new screen is presented before the user, is called a dialog step.

Now let us look a little bit closer to the working of the Application Layer. As told before, it is divided into two sections

Application Server

Message Server

The application server is used to connect the Presentation layer with the Database layer. Work process, dispatcher all comes under this. Application server communicates with each other using the message server.

Work Process: A process initiated by the system, to execute user's request. There can be n number of work processes, linked to running a program. Work process uses two memory areas. One is User Context, which contains information about the user. Another is known as the Roll Area, which contains the data for program execution.

Dispatcher: The request that reaches the Application Layer, first comes to the Dispatcher. From here, it is routed to different work processes depending upon their availability. The dispatcher operates on the principle of First come - First server basis.

Gateway: Acts as an interface for communication medium. RFC protocol is used for communication between SAP system.



Shared Memory: Represents the common memory in Application Server. All work process has access to this shared memory.

https://hubpages.com/technology/SAP-An-ERP-Overview

OpenLink Partners with Tableau to Bring Rapid-Fire Business Intelligence & Analytics to Energy Trading & Risk Management

LONDON & NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--OpenLink,

the global leader in Energy, Commodities and Treasury trading systems,

and Tableau Software, a global leader in rapid-fire, easy-to-use

business analytics software, today announced a partnership to bring data

analytics to the Energy Trading and Risk Management (ETRM/CTRM) market.

Tableau, combined with OpenLink's CubeIntelligence,

centralizes and streamlines the collection of data from multiple

locations, making it easier for users to analyze their data, create

dashboards and reports. People have access to powerful data analytics

software that delivers reporting and analytics real-time and on-the-go,

directly to their mobile device or laptop. Users are able to examine

multiple data sources together in a single view and streamline

reporting, reducing manual labor and potential errors.



Gartner's 2014 Magic Quadrant positions Tableau as a Leader for Business

Intelligence and Analytics Platforms¹, and the Energy Risk Software

Rankings 2014 votes OpenLink the Best

Overall Energy Trading and Risk Management Platform.

David Priestley, Managing Director, Business Intelligence, OpenLink

commented "We are delighted to partner with Tableau to offer Energy

companies the tools to make data discovery and reporting easier and

faster to manage their exposure, comply with regulatory requirements and

maintain their competitive edge."



"OpenLink shares our mission to help people see and understand their

data," said Dan Jewett, Vice President of Product Management at Tableau

Software. "This partnership will help us to bring rapid-fire analytics

to companies in the Energy industry, which faces some of the classic

challenges in accessing and making sense of its data."

Chris Mudry, Chief Risk Officer, Mercuria Energy said "CubeIntelligence

is currently deployed in Credit Risk, Position Management, Commodity

Flow and Treasury. The partnership

with Tableau has added a new dimension allowing us to create some

really sophisticated clear visualisations for our business leaders."

¹ Source: Gartner (2014) Magic Quadrant for Business Intelligence and

Analytics Platforms Report, Rita

L. Sallam, Joao

Tapadinha,| Josh

Parenteau, Daniel

Yuen, Bill

Hostmann, February 20, 2014

- ENDS -

Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in

its research publications, and does not advise technology users to

select only those vendors with the highest ratings or other designation.

Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner's

research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact.

Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to

this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness

for a particular purpose.

About Tableau

Tableau Software (NYSE: DATA) helps people see and understand data.

Tableau helps anyone quickly analyze, visualize and share information.

More than 23,000 customer accounts get rapid results with Tableau in the

office and on-the-go. And tens of thousands of people use Tableau Public

to share data in their blogs and websites. See how Tableau can help you

by downloading the free trial at www.tableausoftware.com/trial.

Tableau and Tableau Software are trademarks of Tableau Software, Inc.

All other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective

companies with which they are associated.

About OpenLink

Founded in 1992, OpenLink (www.openlink.com)

is the global leader in Transaction Lifecycle Management (TLM) software

for the commodity, energy and financial services industries. OpenLink's

products address portfolio management, trading, risk management, and

operations processing for both financial and physical assets.

Owned by leading private equity investment firm Hellman & Friedman,

OpenLink is a global software and services business that has grown both

organically and through strategic acquisitions, to achieve revenues in

excess of $300 million. The company serves over 500 clients, including

12 of the world's largest commodity and energy companies, 9 of the

largest financial institutions, and 11 of tableau roi the largest central banks.

OpenLink has 1,200 employees in 12 global offices on five continents,

with headquarters outside New York City and field offices in Houston,

Manhattan, London, Berlin, Vienna, Toronto, São Paulo, Mexico City,

Singapore, Dubai and Sydney.

OpenLink has received numerous industry awards and recognition,

including citations as the industry leader by a number of analyst firms,

and first-in-class ranking by Energy Risk magazine for

Commodity/Energy Trading and Risk Management (C/ETRM) systems.

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20141124005177/en/OpenLink-Partners-Tableau-Bring-Rapid-Fire-Business-Intelligence

OpenLink Partners with Tableau to Bring Rapid-Fire Business Intelligence & Analytics to Energy Trading & Risk Management

LONDON & NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--OpenLink,

the global leader in Energy, Commodities and Treasury trading systems,

and Tableau Software, a global leader in rapid-fire, easy-to-use

business analytics software, today announced a partnership to bring data

analytics to the Energy Trading and Risk Management (ETRM/CTRM) market.



Tableau, combined with OpenLink's CubeIntelligence,

centralizes and streamlines the collection of data from multiple

locations, making it easier for users to analyze their data, create

dashboards and reports. People have access to powerful data analytics

software that delivers reporting and analytics real-time and on-the-go,

directly to their mobile device or laptop. Users are able to examine

multiple data sources together in a single view and streamline

reporting, reducing manual labor and potential errors.

Gartner's 2014 Magic Quadrant positions Tableau as a Leader for Business

Intelligence and Analytics Platforms¹, and the Energy Risk Software

Rankings 2014 votes OpenLink the Best

Overall Energy Trading and Risk Management Platform.

David Priestley, Managing Director, Business Intelligence, OpenLink

commented "We are delighted to partner with Tableau to offer Energy

companies the tools to make data discovery and reporting easier and

faster to manage their exposure, comply with regulatory requirements and

maintain their competitive edge."

"OpenLink shares our mission to help people see and understand their

data," said Dan Jewett, Vice President of Product Management at Tableau

Software. "This partnership will help us to bring rapid-fire analytics

to companies in the Energy industry, which faces some of the classic

challenges in accessing and making sense of its data."

Chris Mudry, Chief Risk Officer, Mercuria Energy said "CubeIntelligence

is currently deployed in Credit Risk, Position Management, Commodity

Flow and Treasury. The partnership

with Tableau has added a new dimension allowing us to create some

really sophisticated clear visualisations for our business leaders."

¹ Source: Gartner (2014) Magic Quadrant for Business Intelligence and

Analytics Platforms Report, Rita

L. Sallam, Joao

Tapadinha,| Josh

Parenteau, Daniel

Yuen, Bill

Hostmann, February 20, 2014



- ENDS -

Gartner does not endorse any vendor, product or service depicted in

its research publications, and does not advise technology users to

select only those vendors with the highest ratings or other designation.

Gartner research publications consist of the opinions of Gartner's

research organization and should not be construed as statements of fact.

Gartner disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, with respect to

this research, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness

for a particular purpose.

About Tableau

Tableau Software (NYSE: DATA) helps people see and understand data.

Tableau helps anyone quickly analyze, visualize and share information.

More than 23,000 customer accounts get rapid results with Tableau in the

office and on-the-go. And tens of thousands of people use Tableau Public

to share data in their blogs and websites. See how Tableau can help you

by downloading the free trial at www.tableausoftware.com/trial.

Tableau and Tableau Software are trademarks of Tableau Software, Inc.

All other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective

companies with which they are associated.

About OpenLink

Founded in 1992, OpenLink (www.openlink.com)

is the global leader in Transaction Lifecycle Management (TLM) software

for the commodity, energy and financial services industries. OpenLink's

products address portfolio management, trading, risk management, and

operations processing for both financial and physical assets.

Owned by leading private equity investment firm Hellman & Friedman,

OpenLink Tableau Case Study is a global software and services business that has grown both

organically and through strategic acquisitions, to achieve revenues in

excess of $300 million. The company serves over 500 clients, including

12 of the world's largest commodity and energy companies, 9 of the

largest financial institutions, and 11 of the largest central banks.

OpenLink has 1,200 employees in 12 global offices on five continents,

with headquarters outside New York City and field offices in Houston,

Manhattan, London, Berlin, Vienna, Toronto, São Paulo, Mexico City,

Singapore, Dubai and Sydney.

OpenLink has received numerous industry awards and recognition,

including citations as the industry leader by a number of analyst firms,

and first-in-class ranking by Energy Risk magazine for

Commodity/Energy Trading and Risk Management (C/ETRM) systems.

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20141124005177/en/OpenLink-Partners-Tableau-Bring-Rapid-Fire-Business-Intelligence

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Big Data: Does Size Matter?

Big Data: Does Size Matter?

Timandra Harkness



Bloomsbury Press

175 Fifth Avenue, Suite 315, New York, NY 10010

9781472920058 $27.00 www.bloomsbury.com

Big Data: Does Size Matter? is expressly for readers of all

backgrounds--no advanced mathematical or computer science knowledge is

required to learn from this straight-talk introduction to what "big

data" really What is MDM? is, and what it means both for individual people and

society at large. Broadcaster and comedian Timandra Harkness reveals how

Big Data enables greater efficiency than ever before possible, from



predicting crimes to tailoring advertisements. But can big data grow so

large as to infringe on individual rights, or even undermine a

democratic society? "Many people have pointed to the hypocrisy of

governments who want us to acquiesce to mass surveillance while trying

to reduce their own accountability through Freedom of Information acts

and the like. If we are to be watched and eavesdropped upon by the

state, should we not by default be able to access data collected about

us, or about the activities of the authorities themselves?" A

thoughtful, reader-friendly assessment of an ongoing, revolutionary

change, Big Data: Does Size Matter? is highly recommended especially for

public and college library collections.

COPYRIGHT 2016 Midwest Book Review



No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/BigData:DoesSizeMatter?-a0462046384
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